"The Citadel of Sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (Saladin) is one of the most iconic monuments in Islamic Cairo, and among the most impressive defensive fortresses dating to the Middle Ages. Its strategic location on the Muqattam Hills gave it a formidable defensive position, and offered, as it still does today, an unrestricted panoramic view of Cairo. Sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi was the first to order the construction of a fortress over the Muqattam Hills (572–579 AH / 1176–1183 AD), but it was not completed during his lifetime. This was achieved during the reign of Sultan Kamel ibn al-Adel (604 AH/1207 AD) who decided to reside in it, making it the official residence of the rulers of Egypt. In the mid-nineteenth century, Khedive Ismail moved the official residence to ‘Abdeen Palace in downtown Cairo.
The Citadel acted as the backdrop to some of the most significant events in Egyptian history from the time it was built to the end of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, which was in power from the early nineteenth century until the 1952 revolution, when the modern Egyptian republic was born. Many monuments were added to the Citadel over the centuries, providing visitors today with an array of places to visit, such as the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha, which dominates the Citadel. Other places to visit include the mosque of the Mamluk sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun (built in 718 AH / 1318 AD), the Ottoman-era Sulayman Pasha al-Khadim Mosque (built 935 AH / c.1528 AD), as well as a number of museums such as the Police Museum, Al-Jawhara Palace Museum, the Royal Vehicle Museum, and the Military Museum.
From its 187 meters, the Cairo tower offers the most amazing panoramic views of the Egyptian capital. It is advised to go up to the tower's circular observation deck in the late morning or late afternoon for the clearest views of the city. You'll also find a restaurant at the top of the tower.
Occasionally, the restaurant revolves around the tower's main axis. The tower was designed by the Egyptian architect, Naoum Chebib. Its completion took 5 years, from 1956 to 1961. Opening Hours: From 8 am to midnight.
Nestled at the heart of Mokattam Mountain in southeastern Cairo, St. Simon Monastery, also known as The Cave Church, is the largest church not only in Egypt but also in the Middle East.
The Cave Church is located in an area known as the Zabbaleen city, meaning literally ‘garbage city’. This city has the largest population of garbage collectors and recyclers in Cairo.
"The Supreme Council of Antiquities is pleased to present to you the newly created website which was launched on the 23rd of April 2008. What makes this website unique is the fact that it provides a kaleidoscope of impressions on the Coptic Museum and historic churches in Old Cairo as well as various aspects of the Coptic heritage by means of multimedia: Panoramic views of churches, interviews with church fathers, virtual tours through the churches and Old Cairo, interactive audio-instruction for the pronunciation of the Coptic alphabet, reading of a Coptic script and photos of Old Cairo from the bird’s eye view. A selection of artefacts from the Coptic Museum exemplifies its rich holdings. Outstanding articles on Marcus Simaika - the Founder of the Coptic Museum, the museum’s history, Coptic language, monks and monasticism, art, music, customs and traditions reveal Coptic culture in all its diversity.
The contributors are mainly members of the Coptic community who supported the realisation of the website with great enthusiasm: The Bishop from Old Cairo, monks and nuns, fathers of churches and monasteries, professors from the Institute of Coptic Studies, curators and restorers of the Coptic Museum and Copts living abroad. All of them create a vital picture of Egypt’s Christian culture that is complex yet simple. A few contributions were made by Non-Copts who take a special interest in the Coptic culture either professionally or for its mere admiration."
Officially called the Church of the Virgin Mary, the Hanging Church resides at the heart of Old Cairo. It is built atop the southern gatehouse of the Roman-built Babylon Fortress and gets its name from the fact that its nave is suspended over a passageway.
This unique location gives the church the impression of hanging in mid-air, a spectacle that would have been even more impressive when it was first built when the ground level was several meters lower than it is today. The church’s Arabic name, al-Muallaqah, also roughly translates as “The Suspended”.
The first unconventional mall of its kind, located in 6th of October, Mall of Arabia rolls out on a vast area of 621,401 sqm (147.95 acres) Introducing a distinctive retail world, with premium local and international brands under one roof.
Envisaged as a family destination and an ideal opportunity for social interaction at the Mall’s Park, Mall of Arabia offers an unrivaled variety of culinary delights, an entertaining cinema-plex, as well as Billy Beez, Flip-out & Bricks City for kids to play safely, as parents shop or dine.
"The Mosque of Muhammad Ali is located inside the Citadel of Salah al‑Din al‑Ayyubi (Saladin) in Cairo. It was built by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1220–1264 AH/1805–1848 AD), the founder of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty (1220–1372 AH/1805–1953 AD), on the site of Mamluk palaces. He had these demolished to make room for his new building, which is also known as the ""Alabaster Mosque"", in reference to its marble paneling on its interior and exterior walls. The mosque’s twin minarets are the highest in all of Egypt, each reaching a height of 84 meters. The outer open court contains a copper clock tower, which was gifted to Muhammad Ali Pasha by Louis Philippe of France in 1262 AH/1845 AD. Muhammad Ali Pasha reciprocated the gesture with an obelisk of Ramesses II’s (c.1279–1213 BC) that stood in front of Luxor Temple. Today, it stands in the Place de la Concorde Square, Paris.
Limestone is the mosque’s main building material. Its square plan consists of a central dome supported by four half‑domes, with an additional four smaller domes in the corners of the building. There are two minbars (pulpits) inside the mosque. The original of the two is made of wood decorated in green. The other was a later addition made of marble. The beautiful white marble mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Pasha is situated in the southwestern corner of the mosque, to the right of the entrance.
The Nile River flows over 6,600 kilometers (4,100 miles) until emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.
For thousands of years, the river has provided a source of irrigation to transform the dry area around it into lush agricultural land. Today, the river continues to serve as a source of irrigation, as well as an important transportation and trade route.
The Egyptian Museum is the oldest archaeological museum in the Middle East, and houses the largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities in the world. The museum displays an extensive collection spanning from the Predynastic Period to the Greco-Roman Era. The architect of the building was selected through an international competition in 1895, which was the first of its kind, and was won by the French architect, Marcel Dourgnon. The museum was inaugurated in 1902 by Khedive Abbas Helmy II, and has become a historic landmark in downtown Cairo, and home to some of the world’s most magnificent ancient masterpieces.
Among the museum’s unrivaled collection are the complete burials of Yuya and Thuya, Psusennes I and the treasures of Tanis, and the Narmer Palette commemorating the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under one king, which is also among the museum’s invaluable artifacts. The museum also houses the splendid statues of the great kings Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, the builders of the pyramids at the Giza plateau. An extensive collection of papyri, sarcophagi and jewelry, among other objects, completes this uniquely expansive museum.
Have you tried Riding Camels In Egypt ? Try a horse or a camel riding at Giza Pyramids for 2 hours during the sun rise or sun set. While experiencing the camel or horse ride, you will enjoy the fascinating view of the pyramids of Cheops, Chephren and Mykerinus from outside.
The Great Pyramids are considered as the oldest one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World, tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years and the most important touristic sites in Egypt.
Memphis Tours representative will pick you up from your hotel to attend the Sound and Light spectacular Show of Giza Pyramids of Cheops, Chefren and Mykerinus. Discover the enchanting history of the ancient Egyptians. The show starts with the story of the Sphinx who has been the vigilant guardian of the city of the dead for five thousand years.
The show also depicts the story of building the pyramids and relates the history of great figures of ancient Egypt such as Thutmosis IV, Akhnaten, Nefertiti and Tut Ankh Amon. Back to your hotel in Cairo or Giza.
"sphinx, mythological creature with a lion’s body and a human head, an important image in Egyptian and Greek art and legend. The word sphinx was derived by Greek grammarians from the verb sphingein (“to bind” or “to squeeze”), but the etymology is not related to the legend and is dubious. Hesiod, the earliest Greek author to mention the creature, called it Phix.
The winged sphinx of Boeotian Thebes, the most famous in legend, was said to have terrorized the people by demanding the answer to a riddle taught her by the Muses—What is it that has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?—and devouring a man each time the riddle was answered incorrectly. Eventually Oedipus gave the proper answer: man, who crawls on all fours in infancy, walks on two feet when grown, and leans on a staff in old age. The sphinx thereupon killed herself. From this tale apparently grew the legend that the sphinx was omniscient, and even today the wisdom of the sphinx is proverbial.
The Giza Pyramids, built to endure an eternity, have done just that. The monumental tombs are relics of Egypt's Old Kingdom era and were constructed some 4,500 years ago. Egypt's pharaohs expected to become gods in the afterlife. To prepare for the next world they erected temples to the gods and massive pyramid tombs for themselves—filled with all the things each ruler would need to guide and sustain himself in the next world. Pharaoh Khufu began the first Giza pyramid project, circa 2550 B.C. His Great Pyramid is the largest in Giza and towers some 481 feet (147 meters) above the plateau. Its estimated 2.3 million stone blocks each weigh an average of 2.5 to 15 tons. Khufu's son, Pharaoh Khafre, built the second pyramid at Giza, circa 2520 B.C. His necropolis also included the Sphinx, a mysterious limestone monument with the body of a lion and a pharaoh's head. The Sphinx may stand sentinel for the pharaoh's entire tomb complex.
The third of the Giza Pyramids is considerably smaller than the first two. Built by Pharaoh Menkaure circa 2490 B.C., it featured a much more complex mortuary temple. Each massive pyramid is but one part of a larger complex, including a palace, temples, solar boat pits, and other features.
See The Sun Rise Over Some Of Egypt’s Most Famous Ancient Monuments On This Exhilarating Hot Air Balloon Rides In Luxor.
After Early Morning Pickup, Travel To The West Bank Of The Nile River, And Board a Shared Or Private Balloon Basket For a 45- To 60-Minute Flight. Then, As You Ascend, Behold The Thrilling Bird’s-Eye Views As The Sunlight Illuminates The Temples And Mountains Below. Gaze Down Over Karnak, Queen Hatshepsut’s Temple And Other Monuments, And Absorb The Peaceful Dawn
Dayr al-Madīnah, also spelled Deir el-Medina, ancient site on the west bank of the Nile River at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is known primarily as the location of a settlement for craftsmen who laboured on the royal tombs, especially those in the nearby Valley of the Kings. The village, the best-preserved of its type, has provided scholars with helpful insights into the living conditions of those state labourers. X
Dayr al-Madīnah, also spelled Deir el-Medina, ancient site on the west bank of the Nile River at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is known primarily as the location of a settlement for craftsmen who laboured on the royal tombs, especially those in the nearby Valley of the Kings. The village, the best-preserved of its type, has provided scholars with helpful insights into the living conditions of those state labourers. The settlement has also yielded thousands of inscribed papyri fragments and ostraca; these documents have been an invaluable source of information not only about the literary and religious aspects of the workers’ daily lives but also (especially regarding the 20th dynasty [1190–1075 BCE]) about the economic and, less directly, the political fortunes of the time. Dayr al-Madīnah is also the location of numerous tombs of the artisans who lived in the New Kingdom (c. 1539–1075 BCE) village, private tombs from the 19th and 20th dynasties (see ancient Egypt: The Ramesside period), and three temples erected for the workers’ use.
Travelling Egypt without spending time on the Nile, would be like going to Italy and not seeing the Colosseum or visiting Peru and not stopping by Machu Picchu.
Having said that deciding how to tackle this mighty beast can throw up all manner of questions. For instance, when’s the best time to go? How long should I spend onboard? And, most frequently, do I choose a felucca or riverboat? To quickly address a couple of those queries, October to April is the best time to travel because it’s not too hot (between 25-30°C), making temple pitstops much more pleasant. Also, on an Intrepid trip you can expect to spend a maximum of one night sleeping on a felucca, but three nights if choosing a cruise. That detail alone should give you some indication of what you’d prefer. But, if you’re still befuddled, don’t worry, all will soon become clear as we help you to decipher the differences between these two river roving options.
"The ancient Egyptians are known for their beautiful temples, and the Luxor Temple in Thebes is one of the most extraordinary. Dating back to 1392 BCE, the temple was built on the east bank of the Nile River and is dedicated to the deities Mut, Khonsu, and Amun. Its construction was begun by Pharaoh Amenhotep III and was completed by Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Containing ten sections, Luxor Temple is massive. The entrance alone is over two hundred feet (sixty-one meters) wide! It includes: the Avenue of the Sphinxes, First Pylon, Roman Camp, Mosque, Court of Ramses II, Court of Amenhotep III, Chapel of Mut, Chapel of Khonsu, Chapel of Amun, and finally the Birth Chamber. The temple walls were made of mud bricks in order to symbolize the separation between the world of the Egyptians and their deities. One of the main functions of the temple focused on the annual Opet festival, an event in which statues of Mut, Khonsu, and Amun would travel from Karnak to the temple. Unlike many other ancient constructions in Thebes, Luxor Temple still stands and is visited to this day. It is also still used as a place of worship.
The philosopher, mathematician, and Egyptologist R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz (1887-1961) wrote The Temple of Man, following a twelve-year study of the temple of Amun-Mut-Khonsu at Luxor. Through a reading of the temple’s measurements and proportions, its axes and orientations, and the symbolism and placement of its bas-reliefs, along with his accompanying studies of related medical and mathematical papyri, Schwaller de Lubicz described how advanced the ancient Egyptian civilization was and that it possessed exalted knowledge and achievements both materially and spiritually. His study concluded that the temple is an expression and summary – an architectural encyclopedia – of what the ancient Egyptians knew of humanity and the universe.
Ramesseum, funerary temple of Ramses II (1279–13 BC), erected on the west bank of the Nile River at Thebes in Upper Egypt. The temple, famous for its 57-foot (17-metre) seated statue of Ramses II (of which only fragments are left), was dedicated to the god Amon and the deceased king. The walls of the Ramesseum, which is only about half preserved, are decorated with reliefs, including scenes depicting the Battle of Kadesh, the Syrian wars, and the Festival of Min
. This temple is identified with the “Tomb of Osymandias” (a corruption of Ramses II’s prenomen) described by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC, and the shattered colossus of Ramses was the subject of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poem “Ozymandias.”
"Dayr al-Baḥrī, also spelled Deir el-Bahri, Egyptian archaeological site in the necropolis of Thebes. It is made up of a bay in the cliffs on the west bank of the Nile River east of the Valley of the Kings. Its name (Arabic for “northern monastery”) refers to a monastery built there in the 7th century CE.
Of the three ancient Egyptian structures on the site, one, the funerary temple of King Mentuhotep II (built c. 1970 BCE), has lost much of its superstructure. The second, the terraced temple of Queen Hatshepsut (built c. 1470 BCE), was uncovered (1894–96) beneath the monastery ruins and subsequently underwent partial restoration. A fuller restoration of the third terrace, sanctuary, and retaining wall was started in 1968 by a Polish archaeological mission, which also found a third temple, built by Thutmose III about 1435 BCE, above and between the two earlier temples. All three temples were linked by long causeways to valley temples with docking facilities. Situated under one of the cliffs, Hatshepsut’s temple in particular is a famous example of creative architectural exploitation of a site. All three temples were largely destroyed by progressive rock falls from the cliffs above.
Karnak, also called Al-Karnak, village located in Al-Uqṣur muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Upper Egypt, which has given its name to the northern half of the ruins of Thebes on the east bank of the Nile River, including the ruins of the Great Temple of Amon.
Karnak and other areas of ancient Thebes—including Luxor, the Valley of the Kings, and the Valley of the Queens—were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979.
Valley of the Kings, Arabic Wādī Al-Mulūk, also called Valley of the Tombs of the Kings or Arabic Wādī Bībān al-Mulūk, long narrow defile just west of the Nile River in Upper Egypt. It was part of the ancient city of Thebes and was the burial site of almost all the kings (pharaohs) of the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties (1539–1075 BCE), from Thutmose I to Ramses X. Located in the hills behind Dayr al-Baḥrī, the 62 known tombs exhibit variety both in plan and in decoration.
In 1979 UNESCO designated the valley part of the World Heritage site of ancient Thebes, which also includes Luxor, the Valley of the Queens, and Karnak.